Christ instituted the sacraments of the new law - Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist (Holy Communion), Penance, Extreme Unction (Anointing of the Sick), Holy Orders, and Holy Matrimony. The seven sacraments touch all the stages and all the important moments of Christian life: they give birth and increase, healing and mission to the Christian's life of faith. There is thus a certain resemblance between the stages of natural life and the stages of the spiritual life.
Sacraments are "powers that comes forth" from the Body of Christ, which is ever–living and life–giving. They are actions of the Holy Spirit at work in his Body, the Church. They are “the masterworks of God” in the new and everlasting covenant.
Catechism of The Catholic Church #1116
To learn more about the Seven Sacraments - read Part Two Section of the Catechism of the Catholic Church